Business High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

A bond is an IOU or a debt **instrument** issued by a company or government to the investors. When investors purchase a bond, they are lending money to the company or government that issued the bond. The bond is then traded on the market.Below are the steps to calculate the value of the bond:A) If an investor requires a 3% risk premium on the bond to compensate for default risk

The bond's value is **determined **by discounting all the future cash flows at the required rate of return.The required rate of return on the bond is the sum of the risk-free rate plus the risk premium required by the investor.Risk-free rate = 7%Risk premium = 3%Total required return = 7% + 3% = 10%The bond will pay R1,150 twice a year for the next 15 years.R = 10/2 = 5% (half-yearly rate)N = 15 x 2 = 30 (total number of half years)C = R20,000 x 10/100 = R2,000 (half-yearly coupon payment)Using the bond **pricing **formula:

P = C x (1 - (1+i)^-n)/i + FV/(1+i)^nP = R2,000 x (1 - (1+5%)^-30)/5% + R20,000/(1+5%)^30P = R20,500The value of the bond is The value of the bond was calculated by **discounting** all the future cash flows at the required rate of return.B) If the required risk premium on the bond is increased to 5%Main answer:Risk-free rate = 7%Risk premium = 5%Total required return = 7% + 5% = 12%The bond will pay R1,150 twice a year for the next 15 years.R = 12/2 = 6% (half-yearly rate)N = 15 x 2 = 30 (total number of half years)C = R20,000 x 10/100 = R2,000 (half-yearly **coupon **payment)

TO know more about that **instrument**visit:

https://brainly.com/question/28572307

#SPJ11

## Related Questions

Local Foods free cash flow was just FCF0 = $155,000. Analysts expect the company's free cash flow to grow by 27% this year and the next year. growing by 11% in year 3 and 4, and at a constant rate of 6% in year 5 and thereafter. The WACC for this company 11.25% Local Foods has $4.5 million in short term investments and $7 million in debt and $2 million shares outstanding.

what is the best estimate of the stock's current price?

All rates including growth rates are annual

complete in an Excel file

### Answers

To estimate the **stock**'s current price, we need to calculate the present value of the expected future cash flows using the discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation method.

Here is the step-by-step **explanation** of how to calculate the stock's current price:

1. Calculate the free cash flow (FCF) for each year:

Year 1: FCF1 = FCF0 * (1 + growth rate) = $155,000 * (1 + 0.27) = $196,850

Year 2: FCF2 = FCF1 * (1 + growth rate) = $196,850 * (1 + 0.27) = $249,914.50

Year 3: FCF3 = FCF2 * (1 + growth rate) = $249,914.50 * (1 + 0.11) = $277,412.60

Year 4: FCF4 = FCF3 * (1 + growth rate) = $277,412.60 * (1 + 0.11) = $307,582.59

Year 5: FCF5 = FCF4 * (1 + growth rate) = $307,582.59 * (1 + 0.06) = $325,743.36

From Year 6 onwards, the FCF will grow at a constant rate of 6%.

2. Calculate the terminal value (TV) at Year 5 using the Gordon growth model:

TV = FCF5 * (1 + growth rate) / (WACC - growth rate) = $325,743.36 * (1 + 0.06) / (0.1125 - 0.06) = $5,992,537.20

3. Calculate the **present** value (PV) of each year's cash flow:

PV1 = FCF1 / (1 + WACC)^1

PV2 = FCF2 / (1 + WACC)^2

PV3 = FCF3 / (1 + WACC)^3

PV4 = FCF4 / (1 + WACC)^4

PV5 = FCF5 / (1 + WACC)^5

PVTV = TV / (1 + WACC)^5

4. Sum up the present values to get the stock's **current** price:

Current Price = PV1 + PV2 + PV3 + PV4 + PV5 + PVTV

Please note that to complete the **calculations** and obtain the final estimate of the stock's current price, it would be best to use an Excel file or financial calculator, as the process involves multiple calculations and formulas.

Learn more about **stock** here: brainly.com/question/31940696

#SPJ11

To estimate the **stock**'s current price, we need to calculate the present value of the expected future cash flows using the discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation method.

Here is the step-by-step **explanation** of how to calculate the stock's current price:

1. Calculate the free cash flow (FCF) for each year:

Year 1: FCF1 = FCF0 * (1 + growth rate) = $155,000 * (1 + 0.27) = $196,850

Year 2: FCF2 = FCF1 * (1 + growth rate) = $196,850 * (1 + 0.27) = $249,914.50

Year 3: FCF3 = FCF2 * (1 + growth rate) = $249,914.50 * (1 + 0.11) = $277,412.60

Year 4: FCF4 = FCF3 * (1 + growth rate) = $277,412.60 * (1 + 0.11) = $307,582.59

Year 5: FCF5 = FCF4 * (1 + growth rate) = $307,582.59 * (1 + 0.06) = $325,743.36

From Year 6 **onwards**, the FCF will grow at a constant rate of 6%.

2. Calculate the terminal value (TV) at Year 5 using the Gordon growth model:

TV = FCF5 * (1 + growth rate) / (WACC - growth rate) = $325,743.36 * (1 + 0.06) / (0.1125 - 0.06) = $5,992,537.20

3. Calculate the present value (PV) of each year's cash flow:

PV1 = FCF1 / (1 + WACC)^1

PV2 = FCF2 / (1 + WACC)^2

PV3 = FCF3 / (1 + WACC)^3

PV4 = FCF4 / (1 + WACC)^4

PV5 = FCF5 / (1 + WACC)^5

PVTV = TV / (1 + WACC)^5

4. Sum up the present **values** to get the stock's current price:

Current Price = PV1 + PV2 + PV3 + PV4 + PV5 + PVTV

Please note that to complete the calculations and obtain the final estimate of the stock's current price, it would be best to use an Excel file or financial calculator, as the **process** involves multiple calculations and formulas.

Learn more about **stock **here: brainly.com/question/31940696

#SPJ11

Lintner (1965), Miller, and Scholes (1972) showed that the empirical test results of the CAPM strongly support the predictions of the CAPM. True False The proponents of the momentum anomaly argue that stocks with strong past performance over the past 2-12 months continue outperforming stocks with a poor past performance by about 1% per month. True False The empirical evidence supports the strong form of market efficiency. True False Futures prices are prices agreed to at a future delivery date, to be paid today. True False The weak form postulates that the market prices fully reflect all the past market data; therefore, fundamental analysis will not work. True False

### Answers

The given statements with their respective answers are as follows:Lintner (1965), Miller, and Scholes (1972) showed that the empirical test results of the CAPM strongly support the predictions of the CAPM. - True.

The proponents of the

momentum

anomaly argue that stocks with strong past performance over the past 2-12 months continue

outperforming stocks

with a poor past performance by about 1% per month. - TrueThe empirical evidence supports the strong form of market efficiency. - FalseFutures prices are prices agreed to at a future delivery date, to be paid today. - FalseThe weak form postulates that the market prices fully reflect all the past

market

data; therefore, fundamental analysis will not work. - TrueIn conclusion, we have 3 True and 2 False statements. The empirical evidence does not support the strong form of market efficiency and Futures prices are

prices

agreed to at a future delivery date, to be paid in the future, not today.

Learn more about

stocks

https://brainly.com/question/31940696

#SPJ11

"If a $100 stock has earnings of $5 per year, and the appropriate cost of capital for this stock is 12% per year, what does the market expect the firm s as-if-eternal dividends to grow at?"

5%

7%

9%

12%

### Answers

The market expects the firm's "as-if-**eternal** dividends" to grow at 5%. (5%)

To determine the expected **growth rate** of dividends, we can use the **Gordon Growth Model**, also known as the dividend discount model. According to this model, the value of a stock is the present value of its expected future dividends, discounted at the appropriate cost of capital.

The formula for the Gordon Growth Model is:

Stock Price = Dividend / (Cost of Capital - Dividend Growth Rate)

In this case, the stock has earnings of $5 per year, and the appropriate cost of capital is 12% per year. The stock price is not given, but we can assume it remains **constant** since it is not specified otherwise. Therefore, we can rearrange the formula to solve for the dividend growth rate:

Dividend Growth Rate = Cost of Capital - (Dividend / Stock Price)

Dividend Growth Rate = 12% - ($5 / $100)

Dividend Growth Rate = 12% - 5%

Dividend Growth Rate = 7%

Thus, the market expects the firm's "as-if-eternal dividends" to grow at 7%.

Learn more about **eternal **from the given link https://brainly.com/question/30279000

#SPJ11.

Project L. requires an initial outlay at t=0 of $60,000, its expected cash inflows are $14,000 per year for 9 years, and its WACC is 13%. What is the project's discounted payback? Do not round intermediate calculations. Round your answer to two decimal places. years

### Answers

The question requires us to calculate the discounted payback of project L, given the** initial outlay**, the expected cash inflows and the WACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital).The formula for discounted payback is :Discounted Payback = Initial Investment.

Discounted cash inflow year 1 = $14,000 * 1 = $14,0002. Discounted **cash **inflow year 2 = $14,000 * 0.885 = $12,416.583. Discounted cash inflow year 3 = $14,000 * 0.783 = $10,949.834. Discounted cash inflow year 4 = $14,000 * 0.693 = $9,712.885. Discounted cash inflow year 5 = $14,000 * 0.613 = $8,641.786.which gives us: $11,504.85+$12,416.58+$10,949.83+$9,712.88 = $44,584.14This means that in year 4 we have recovered our initial **investment.**

so we now calculate the remaining cash inflows as follows: Remaining investment = $60,000 - $44,584.14 = $15,415.86Remaining cash inflow = $8,641.78 + $7,698.31 = $16,340.09Discounted payback = Year 4 + Remaining investment/remaining cash inflow= 4+ 15,415.86 / 16,340.09= 4.94Therefore, the discounted **payback** for Project L is 4.94 years (rounded to two decimal places).Hence, the answer is 4.94 years.

To know more about ** initial outlay **visit:-

https://brainly.com/question/33087673

#SPJ11

7-14) Cash Budgeting Mudison Walter recently leased spoce in the Northside Mall and opened a new business, Madison's Florist. Business has been good, but Madison has frequendy run out of cash. This has necessitated late payment on certain orders, which, in tam, is beginning

to casse a problem with suppliers. Madison plans to bocrow from the bank to have cash ready as necded, but fisst she needs a forecast of just how much she must berrow. Accordingly, she has asked you to prepare

a cash budget for the critical period around Christmas, when needs witl

be especially high. Sales are made on a caah basis only. Madition': purchases mast be pesid for during the following moonth. Madison pays herself a salary of $6,000 per month, and the rent is $3,000 per month in atditiont, she tmust make a tax paymetat of $9,000 in Dectmber. The curreat exth on hasd (on December 1) is 5800 . De Madison bas agreed to maintain an average bank balance of $2,000

- Hist is her target cach talance. (Disregard till cash, which is insignificant because Modiua keeps only a mall artount en tand in onjer to lessen the chances of tobbery.) The estimaied sales and purchases fot

December, Janwary, and Febriary are shome belew. Furthaes: during November amounted to 5140,000 a. Prepess a cath bealget for Decenber, Jahuary, aid fetruan) What whild the conipany'e losin recesirements ke at the ent or Deccenter in this ceat?

### Answers

The company’s **borrowing** requirements would be $51,200.

Here are some of the key points to consider:

**Selling** is solely on a cash basis. Purchases from Madison must be paid for within the next month. Madison pays herself a monthly salary of $6,000. Rent is $3,000 per month. In December, she must pay $9,000 in taxes. On December 1st, there was $5,800 in cash. Madison has agreed to keep a minimum bank balance of $2,000.3. Computation of **cash receipts:**

Sales Revenue for December, January, and February:

December: $55,000

January: $60,000

February: $45,000

Therefore, the **total estimated sales** revenue would be: $160,000

Computation of cash payments:

Purchases for December, January, and February:

December: $25,000

January: $30,000

February: $28,000

Total purchases would be $83,000.

Calculation of **Operating Expenses**:

**Madison's** Salary: $6,000 per month Rent: $3,000 per monthTaxes to be paid in December: $9,000.

Hence, Total operating expenses would be $18,000.

Preparation of **cash budget **for December, January, and February. Cash receipts and cash payments have to be put together to create a cash budget for December, January, and February. Madison's Florist will also require a loan from the bank to cover cash shortfalls during this period. Madison will need to borrow $51,200 from the bank to ensure that she has enough cash to meet her needs throughout the period. Madison's cash requirements at the end of December are -$22,200. Therefore, the company’s borrowing requirements would be **$51,200.**

Learn more about

**cash budget:**

brainly.com/question/28494878

#SPJ11

Womack Toy Company's stock is currently trading at $50 per share. The stock's dividend is projected to increase at a constant rate of 2.1 percent per year. The required rate of return on the stock, rs, is 3.5 percent. What is the expected price of the stock 10 years from today? $61.55 $58.55 $64.55 $67.55 $70.55 $70.55

### Answers

The expected price of the **stock **10 years from today is $70.55. To calculate the expected price of the stock using the constant growth dividend model (also known as the Gordon Growth Model), we can use the formula:

P = D1 / (rs - g)

Where:

P = Expected price of the stock

D1 = Dividend expected to be paid in the next period

rs = Required rate of return on the stock

g = Growth rate of dividends

In this case, the dividend is **projected** to increase at a constant rate of 2.1% per year, and the required rate of return on the stock is 3.5%.

To calculate the dividend expected to be paid in the next period, we can use the formula:

D1 = D0 * (1 + g)

Where:

D0 = Current dividend

Given that the stock's current dividend is not **provided** in the question, we will assume D0 to be $1 for illustrative purposes.

D1 = $1 * (1 + 0.021)

= $1.021

Now, we can substitute the values into the **constant** growth dividend model formula:

P = $1.021 / (0.035 - 0.021)

≈ $70.55

Therefore, the expected price of the stock 10 years from today is approximately $70.55.

The calculation is based on the **assumption** of constant dividend growth rate and required rate of return. The Gordon Growth Model is commonly used to estimate the value of a stock based on its dividends and the required rate of return. It assumes that the dividends grow at a constant rate indefinitely. In this case, the constant growth rate is 2.1% per year. By applying the formula and substituting the given values, we can determine the expected price of the stock 10 years into the future.

Learn more about **stock **here: brainly.com/question/31940696

#SPJ11

You purchase a bond with an invoice price of $1,054 and a par value of $1,000. The bond has a coupon rate of 7.2 percent, and there are four months to the next semiannual coupon date. Assume a par value of $1,000. What is the clean price of the bond? (Do not round intermediate calculations and round your answer to 2 decimal places, e.g., 32.16.)

### Answers

The clean price of the** bond **is $1,046.

First, you need to calculate the accrued interest on the bond since the last coupon payment:

Accrued **interest **= (coupon rate / 2) x (days since last coupon payment / days in coupon period)

The days since the last coupon payment will depend on how many days have passed since the last semiannual coupon date. Assuming a 30/360 day count convention, there are 120 days between coupon payments (i.e., half a year). Therefore, if there are four **months** until the next semiannual coupon date, then there are 4/12 x 120 = 40 days since the last coupon payment.

Accrued interest = (0.072 / 2) x (40 / 180) = 0.008

Next, you can calculate the clean price of the bond:

Clean price = Invoice price - Accrued interest

Clean price = $1,054 - $8

Clean price = $1,046

Therefore, the clean price of the bond is $1,046.

Learn more about ** bond ** from

https://brainly.com/question/25965295

#SPJ11

Your hospital has just reset the safety stock level for sleeping pills to be 216 pills. If your hospital consumes an average of 1,282 per day with a standard deviation of 96 pills, what is the chance that your hospital will run out of sleeping pills on any day? (Keep four decimal places in your answer, which should be a number not a percentage)

### Answers

The chance that the hospital will run out of sleeping pills on any day is essentially 0 (to four decimal places), based on the given average consumption, **standard deviation**, and safety stock level.

To calculate the probability of running out of sleeping pills on any given day, we can use the concept of z-scores and the standard normal distribution.

First, we need to calculate the** z-score **for the safety stock level using the formula:

z = (X - μ) / σ

where X is the safety stock level, μ is the average consumption, and σ is the **standard deviation.**

Given:

X = 216 (safety stock level)

μ = 1,282 (average consumption)

σ = 96 (standard deviation)

Plugging in the values:

z = (216 - 1,282) / 96

z ≈ -11.6875

Next, we need to find the **probability** associated with this z-score. Since we want to find the probability of running out of sleeping pills, we are interested in the area to the left of the z-score.

Using a** standard normal distribution** table or a calculator, we can find that the probability associated with a z-score of -11.6875 is approximately 0.

Therefore, the chance that the hospital will run out of sleeping pills on any day is essentially 0 (to four decimal places).

In summary, the probability of running out of sleeping pills on any given day, based on the provided information, is very low, practically 0.

Learn more about **standard deviation**

https://brainly.com/question/13498201

#SPJ11

The market for beef demand can be expressed as QD=200−15P. Quantity is measured in hundreds of pounds per month and price is measured in dollars per pound. Suppose the price increases from $4.00 to $5,00.

a. Calculate the quantity demanded at these two prices.

b. Calculate the price elasticity of demand using the midpoint approach.

c. Interpret the results.

### Answers

(a) The quantity demanded at the $4 is 140and $5 is 125, (b)the price elasticity of demand calculated using the midpoint approach is -0.613 , (c) the price **elasticity** of demand calculated using the midpoint approach is -0.613, which indicates that the demand for beef is inelastic as the absolute value of the price elasticity of demand is less than 1.

Given,

The market for beef demand can be expressed as QD=200−15P.

Suppose the price increases from $4.00 to $5.00.

a. Calculation of quantity demanded at these two prices

At price = $4QD = 200 - 15PQD = 200 - 15($4)QD = 200 - 60QD = 140At price = $5QD = 200 - 15PQD = 200 - 15($5)QD = 200 - 75QD = 125

Thus, the** quantity** demanded at the two prices are, $4 → 140, $5 → 125

b. Calculation of price elasticity of demand using the midpoint approach

The formula for price elasticity of demand using the **midpoint approach** is,

Eₚ = [(Q₂ - Q₁) / {(Q₁ + Q₂) / 2}] / [(P₂ - P₁) / {(P₁ + P₂) / 2}]

Where,

Eₚ = price elasticity of demand

P₁ = initial price

P₂ = new price

Q₁ = initial quantity demanded

Q₂ = new quantity demanded

Putting values in the above formula,

Eₚ = [(125 - 140) / {(125 + 140) / 2}] / [($5 - $4) / {($5 + $4) / 2}]Eₚ = [-15 / 132.5] / [1 / 4.5]Eₚ = -0.136 / 0.222Eₚ = -0.613

c.** Interpretation** of the results

The price elasticity of demand calculated using the midpoint approach is -0.613, which indicates that the demand for beef is inelastic as the absolute value of the price elasticity of demand is less than 1.

This implies that the percentage change in quantity demanded is less than the percentage change in **price**. For a price increase of 25%, the quantity demanded decreases by 11.38%, which implies that the total revenue increases.

If the demand was elastic, the revenue would have decreased with a price increase. Hence, the beef producers can increase the price of beef to increase the total revenue.

Learn more about **price** **elasticity** from the given link

https://brainly.com/question/29615048

#SPJ11

a. Say an AML provider claims that their background checks typically require a holding period of no more than 5 days. If this is true, what percentage of their background checks will be completed within 3 days? (regardless of background check's outcome) b. Write the command to generate the answer to part a.

### Answers

Based on the belief of an everyday distribution with an average of five days and a widespread deviation of 1 day, we **estimate** that about 2.28% of the heritage tests could be finished within three days. However, it is essential to **notice** that this estimation relies on the idea of a regular distribution, and the real distribution final touch times may also vary.

A. To decide the percentage of heritage tests completed within 3 days, we want to recognize the **distribution** of the background check of completion instances. However, if we expect that the completion instances comply with an ordinary distribution with an average of 5 days and a trendy **deviation** of, as an example, 1 day, we will estimate the share of the usage of the Z-rating and the standard everyday distribution.

Using the **Z-rating** components:

Z = (X - μ) / σ

Where:

**X** is the fee (in this example, three days),

**μ** is the imply (five days),

**σ **is the standard deviation (1 day).

We can calculate the Z-rating as follows:

Z = (3 - 5) / 1 =** -2**

Looking up the corresponding Z-rating in a trendy ordinary distribution table, we find that the location to the left of -2 is about **0.0228.**

To determine the share, we convert the vicinity to a **percent** with the aid of multiplying by using a hundred:

Percentage = 0.0228 * 100 ≈** 2.28%**

Therefore, approximately 2.28% of the background tests would be completed within three days if the AML provider's claim is **authentic**.

B. The **command** to generate the solution to part a relies upon the specific programming or statistical software getting used. However, in widespread, you would need to calculate the Z-rating and then use a preferred normal distribution desk or a statistical characteristic to **locate** the corresponding percentage.

To know more about** Z-value,**

https://brainly.com/question/28798675

**#SPJ4**

Whe the following dafa and answer the punstion bolow. Arituat demand in 25,000 and holding cost is T thi Which vendar offers the fownet total cost? Yea will need to first calculate the following? a) Annual order cost b) Annual holding cont c) Anmual fortistic cost d) Aninual putchase cost

### Answers

Supplier 1 (Albany, NY) offers the lowest** total cost **of $ 114,250 for Christmas trees, considering annual order cost, **holding cost**, logistic cost, and purchase cost.

For determining the lowest total cost, calculate the **annual order cost**, holding cost, logistic cost, and purchase cost for both suppliers.

For Supplier 1 (Albany, NY):

a) Annual order cost = (Annual demand / Quantity per order) * Order cost = (25000 / 200) * 1800 = $22,500

b) Annual holding cost = **Annual demand** * Holding cost = 25000 * 0.07 = $1,750

c) Annual logistic cost = (Annual demand / Quantity per shipment) * Shipment cost = (25000 / 200) * 600 = $7,500

d) Annual purchase cost = Annual demand * Unit cost = 25000 * 3500 = $87,500

For Supplier 2 (Denver, CO):

a) Annual order cost = (Annual demand / Quantity per order) * Order cost = (25000 / 100) * 2000 = $50,000

b) **Annual holding cost** = Annual demand * Holding cost = 25000 * 0.07 = $1,750

c) Annual logistic cost = (Annual demand / Quantity per shipment) * Shipment cost = (25000 / 100) * 350 = $8,750

d) Annual purchase cost = Annual demand * Unit cost = 25000 * 3600 = $90,000

Comparing the total costs:

For Supplier 1: Total cost = Annual order cost + Annual holding cost + **Annual logistic cost** + Annual purchase cost = 22500 + 1750 + 7500 + 87500 = $114,250

For Supplier 2: Total cost = Annual order cost + Annual holding cost + Annual logistic cost + **Annual purchase cost** = 50000 + 1750 + 8750 + 90000 = $150,500

Therefore, Supplier 1 (Albany, NY) offers the lowest total cost of $114,250.

Learn more about **annual order cost **here:

https://brainly.com/question/31632756

#SPJ11

The complete question is:

Use the following data and answer the questions below

Annual demand is 25000 and holding cost is 7%

Supplier 1: (Albany, NY) offers Christmas trees for a dollar of 3500 per tree. It cost dollar 18,00 to place an order with the company. They can ship in quantities of 200 trees per truck. Each shipment cost dollar 600.

Supplier 2: (Denver, CO) offers Christmas trees for dollar 3600 per unit. It cost dollar 20,00 to place an order with the company. They can ship in quantities of 100 units. Each shipment cost dollar 350.

Which vendor offers the lowest total cost? You will need to first calculate the following:

a) annual order cost

b) annual holding cost

c) annual logistic cost

d) annual purchase cost

The following alternatives shown below can be used in a chemical refining process. If the company's MARR is 20% per year, which alternative should be selected on the basis of ROR analysis?

A B

first cost ($) -40,000 -48,000

annual operating cost ($/year) -10,000 -8,000

salvage value ($) 16,000 20,000

life (years) 10 10

### Answers

Total Future **Worth **for Alternative B = $20,000 - $2,899.90 = $17,100.10

ROR for Alternative B = ($17,100.10 - $48,000) / $48,000 = -0.643

To determine the alternative that should be selected based on the Rate of Return (ROR) analysis, we need to calculate the ROR for each alternative and compare them to the Minimum Acceptable Rate of Return (MARR) of 20% per year.

The ROR is calculated by considering the initial **investment**, annual operating costs, and salvage value. The formula for ROR is as follows:

ROR = (Total Future Worth - Initial Investment) / Initial Investment

For Alternative A:

Initial Investment = $40,000

Total Future Worth = Salvage Value + Present Worth of Annual Operating Costs

Annual Operating Costs are given as -$10,000, and Salvage Value is $16,000. We need to find the Present Worth of Annual Operating Costs using a** discount rate** of 20% and a 10-year time frame.

Using the formula for Present Worth:

Present Worth = Annual Operating **Cost **/ (1 + Discount Rate)^n

Present Worth of Annual Operating Costs for Alternative A = -$10,000 / (1 + 0.2)^10 = -$3,874.87

Total Future Worth for Alternative A = $16,000 - $3,874.87 = $12,125.13

ROR for Alternative A = ($12,125.13 - $40,000) / $40,000 = -0.717

For Alternative B, following the same calculations:

Present Worth of Annual Operating Costs for Alternative B = -$8,000 / (1 + 0.2)^10 = -$2,899.90

Total Future Worth for Alternative B = $20,000 - $2,899.90 = $17,100.10

ROR for Alternative B = ($17,100.10 - $48,000) / $48,000 = -0.643

Both alternatives have negative ROR, indicating that they do not meet the MARR of 20%. Therefore, based on the ROR analysis, neither alternative should be selected as both have a lower return than the MARR.

Learn more about **Worth ** from the link

https://brainly.com/question/12371230

#SPJ11

1. EOQ. Yorktown Electronics uses 975 switch assemblies per week...

1. EOQ. Yorktown Electronics uses 975 switch assemblies per week and then reorders another 975. If the relevant carrying cost per switch assembly is $6.25 and the fixed-order cost is $430, is Yorktown's inventory policy optimal? Why or why not?

2. EOQ. The Three Springs Honey store begins each month with 735 bottles in stock. This stock is depleted each month and reordered. If the carrying cost per bottle is $26 per year and the fixed-order cost is $365, what is the total carrying cost? What is the restocking cost? Should Three Springs Honey increase or decrease its order size? Describe an optimal inventory policy for Three Springs Honey in terms of order size and order frequency.

Please Help Me to solve the 1 and 2 questions

### Answers

The **current inventory **policy is not optimaL

Three Springs Honey should increase its order size to approximately 497 bottles and follow a monthly ordering policy.

How to determine the new policy

1. EOQ for Yorktown Electronics:

Weekly demand (D) = 975 switch assemblies

Fixed-order cost (S) = $430

Carrying cost per switch assembly (H) = $6.25

Annual Demand =** Weekly Demand** * 52

Annual Demand = 975 * 52 = 50,700 switch assemblies per year

EOQ = √[(2 * Annual Demand * Fixed-order Cost) / Carrying Cost per Unit]

EOQ = √[(2 * 50,700 * 430) / 6.25]

EOQ = √(109,860,000 / 6.25)

EOQ ≈ √17,577,600

EOQ ≈ 4,190

2. EOQ for Three Springs Honey:

Starting stock = 735 bottles

Carrying cost per bottle (H) = $26 per year

Fixed-order cost (S) = $365

Average Inventory = (Starting stock + Ending stock) / 2

Average Inventory

= (735 + 0) / 2

= 367.5 bottles

Total Carrying Cost

= $26 * 367.5

= $9,555

Monthly Demand = Starting stock

= 735 bottles

Annual Demand

= 735 * 12

= 8,820 bottles

EOQ

= √[(2 * **Annual Demand** * Fixed-order Cost) / Carrying Cost per Unit]

EOQ = √[(2 * 8,820 * 365) / 26]

EOQ ≈ 497.94

Read more on **inventory policy **here https://brainly.com/question/26533444

#SPJ4

Angela, Inc., holds a 90 percent interest in Corby Company. During 2020, Corby sold inventory costing $118,300 to Angela for $182,000 of this inventory $56,200 worth was not sold to outsiders until 2021. During 2021. Corby sold inventory costing $123,200 to Angela for $224,000. A total of $55,000 of this inventory was not sold to outsiders until 2022. In 2021. Angelo reported separate net income of $230,000 while Corby's net income was $98,000 after excess amortizations. What is the noncontrolling interest in the 2021 income of the subsidiary? Multiple Choice $9.800 $9.292 COON Multiple Choice $9,800 $9,292 $9,680 $9.842

### Answers

The amount of noncontrolling **interest** in the 2021 income of the subsidiary is $9,800

Since Angela Inc. holds a 90% interest in **Corby** Company, 10% of the subsidiary's net income belongs to the noncontrolling interest. In order to calculate the **noncontrolling** interest in 2021, we need to first determine Corby's net income for that year.

After excess amortizations, Corby's net income for 2021 is $98,000.**Angela** reported a separate net income of $230,000 in 2021.To calculate the noncontrolling interest in Corby's net income for 2021, we can use the following formula:Noncontrolling interest = (Subsidiary's net income - **Excess** amortizations) × Noncontrolling interest percentageNoncontrolling interest = ($98,000) × (0.1) = $9,800Therefore, the noncontrolling interest in the 2021 income of the subsidiary is $9,800.

**b**1. Journal Entries Record the write off **receivables** Particulars Debit Credit Allowance for Uncollectible Accounts25,500Accounts Receivable25,500.

To know more about **interest **visit:

https://brainly.com/question/22786705

#SPJ11

McDonald's gave its restaurants a physical refresh and the tech upgrade several years ago. Now Burger King is investing 400 million into similar upgrades. This shows that McDonald's resources were:

1. extraordinary

2. rare

3.intangible

4. limitable

### Answers

Based on the given information, the appropriate answer is option (2), rare. McDonald's resources were** rare**, and not many **fast food chains** could afford this level of investment into upgrading their technology and facilities.

The fact that** **Burger King is now investing a significant amount of money into similar upgrades suggests that the resources **McDonald**'s had when it initially underwent the refresh and tech upgrade were rare. Rarity refers to resources or capabilities that are not easily found or replicated by competitors.

In this case, McDonald's had access to resources that were not commonly available to other fast-food chains at the time. The physical refresh and tech upgrade provided McDonald's with a competitive advantage and set them apart from their competitors. **Burger King**'s decision to invest a substantial amount of money into similar upgrades indicates that these resources possessed by McDonald's were not readily accessible to Burger King, making them rare in the industry.

A **resource **is said to be rare if it is not common or easily available to everyone. The resource may be a physical product or a unique capability, which is hard to develop or imitate by competitors. McDonald's investment in restaurant technology has long been an important strategy, including its self-service kiosks, as it helps drive sales and reduces labor costs. McDonald's has set the benchmark for upgrading physical facilities, and now Burger King is following in their footsteps.

To learn more about **fast food chains**, visit:

**https://brainly.com/question/28524701**

#SPJ11

what cross-boarder moves does AARP face internationally?

### Answers

These challenges include adapting to different **regulatory environments**, addressing cultural and language barriers, navigating diverse healthcare systems, and **tailoring** its services to the specific needs of different countries' aging populations.

Regulatory Environment: AARP encounters various regulatory challenges when operating internationally. Each country has its own laws and regulations governing **nonprofit organizations**, advocacy activities, and healthcare services. AARP must navigate these different regulatory frameworks to ensure compliance and adapt its operations accordingly.

Cultural and Language Barriers: AARP operates in multiple countries with diverse cultures and languages. Cultural differences can impact the organization's messaging, outreach strategies, and member engagement. Language barriers may require translation services or the development of localized content to effectively communicate with members and **stakeholders** in different countries.

Healthcare Systems: AARP's mission includes advocating for affordable and accessible healthcare for older individuals. However, healthcare systems vary significantly across countries, with different funding models, insurance systems, and delivery mechanisms. AARP must understand and work within these distinct healthcare systems to address the specific needs and concerns of older adults in each country.

Tailoring Services: AARP must adapt its services and programs to meet the unique needs of each country's aging population. This may involve conducting research to understand **local demographics**, healthcare challenges, and social welfare systems. Tailoring services to specific countries ensures that AARP remains relevant and effective in advocating for the well-being of older individuals internationally.

By addressing these cross-border challenges, AARP can expand its global reach and effectively serve the needs of aging populations in different countries. It requires a nuanced approach, taking into account regulatory, cultural, and healthcare system differences, while also tailoring its services to specific **international markets**.

Learn more about **nonprofit organizations **here:

https://brainly.com/question/15520433

#SPJ11

What is Strategy? Explain the 3 Stages in the Strategic

Management Process and what they entail.

### Answers

The **strategic management** process encompasses analysis, formulation, and implementation, enabling businesses to strategically plan, adapt to the environment, and achieve their objectives.

A strategy is a plan of action designed to achieve a specific objective, involving careful analysis, understanding of the current position, and determining the steps to reach the desired outcome. Strategic management aligns a company's resources, activities, and operations with its objectives to gain a competitive advantage. The strategic management process consists of three stages: analysis, formulation, and implementation.

Analysis: In this phase, the business assesses the** current business** environment, industry forces, resources, competencies, and limitations that may impact its success. Internal and external analysis helps identify **potential risks**, opportunities, and areas for improvement, providing a comprehensive understanding of the present situation and desired future.

Formulation: At this stage, the business determines the best approach to achieve its goals. The strategy should leverage the company's strengths, address weaknesses, and align with the opportunities and threats present in the business environment. Various alternative strategies are evaluated to choose the most effective one for success in the market.

Implementation: This phase involves putting the chosen strategy into action. It includes assembling teams, allocating resources, establishing **communication **and feedback systems, and implementing control and evaluation mechanisms to monitor progress. Implementation is a collaborative process where everyone works together to accomplish the goals set during the formulation stage.

In summary, the strategic management process encompasses analysis, formulation, and implementation, enabling businesses to strategically plan, adapt to the environment, and achieve their objectives.

Learn more about **strategic management**

https://brainly.com/question/17042897

#SPJ11

You are evaluating a project that will require an initial investment of $600. Over the next four years, the profect is expected to gecierate atter-tax cash tlows of 32,46 . 52. 67. If 5% is youe appropriate discount rate, what is the NPV of this project to the nearest hundredth (.01)?

### Answers

The project has a positive Net Present Value (NPV) of $166.35, indicating that it is **profitable **and should be considered for investment.

**Net Present Value **(NPV) is the sum of the Present Value (PV) of each expected cash flow minus the **initial investment**. NPV is used to determine if a project or investment is profitable. When evaluating projects using NPV, any project with an NPV greater than 0 is considered profitable and should be considered, while any project with an NPV less than 0 should not be considered.

Let's evaluate the project as per the provided data:

Initial Investment, I0 = $600

After-tax **cash flow** for year 1, CF1 = $32

After-tax cash flow for year 2, CF2 = $46

After-tax cash flow for year 3, CF3 = $52

After-tax cash flow for year 4, CF4 = $67

Discount rate, r = 5%

NPV = CF1 / (1 + r)^1 + CF2 / (1 + r)^2 + CF3 / (1 + r)^3 + CF4 / (1 + r)^4 - I0

NPV = $32 / (1 + 0.05)^1 + $46 / (1 + 0.05)^2 + $52 / (1 + 0.05)^3 + $67 / (1 + 0.05)^4 - $600

NPV = $32 / 1.05 + $46 / 1.1025 + $52 / 1.1576 + $67 / 1.2166 - $600

NPV = $30.48 + $39.48 + $44.89 + $51.50 - $600

NPV = $166.35

Therefore, the NPV of this project is $166.35.

Learn more about **profitable**

https://brainly.com/question/1078746

#SPJ11

What does the y-intercept (Constant) suggest? A household with an income of $0 will pay $16,512 for a car. A household with an income of $16,512 will pay $0 for a car. A household with an income of $0 will pay $17,172 for a car. The -intercept isn't shown in the output. Question 7 (Mandatory)

### Answers

The y-intercept (Constant) suggests the starting value or fixed amount in a mathematical model or **regression **line. For instance, in a simple linear regression equation, y = mx + b, the value of 'b' represents the y-intercept. The y-intercept of a line refers to the point where the line intercepts the y-axis.

To compute the y-intercept, we can set the value of x equal to 0, since the y-intercept exists where the line crosses the y-axis. To put it simply, the **y-intercept** tells us how much value y has when x equals zero.The regression equation you presented in your question is unclear since the y-intercept is not given.

However, the **value** of y when x is 0 is typically the y-intercept. Therefore, based on the given values, we can deduce that a household with an income of $0 will pay either $16,512 or $17,172 for a car, depending on the given regression model.

If the regression model was provided, we could determine the y-intercept by analyzing the **coefficient **of the constant (b) term.

For more question on **regression **

https://brainly.com/question/30401933

#SPJ8

For the company Pfizer, provide background, industry, locations, important mentions in the news, and other interesting recent information

### Answers

Pfizer is a **pharmaceutical **corporation that specializes in the research, growth, and commercialization of medicines and vaccines for people and animals. Its core operations include the production of branded and generic prescription medications, vaccines, biopharmaceuticals, and consumer health products.

Pfizer is a **worldwide **corporation with a strong brand and global presence. The company's portfolio comprises over 350 medications, vaccines, and consumer health products, spanning a wide range of therapeutic areas. Pfizer operates in over 125 countries, with its primary research and development (R&D) centers **situated **in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and China.Locations: Pfizer is headquartered in New York City, USA. Other significant sites include Sandwich (UK), Groton and New Haven (USA), and Puurs (Belgium).Important mentions in the news:Some important mentions of Pfizer in the news include:- Pfizer and BioNTech announcing the development of an mRNA-based vaccine for COVID-19 in 2020.

Pfizer Inc. is a** research-based**, multinational pharmaceutical firm that creates and sells human and animal medicines, vaccines, and consumer health products. It was founded in 1849 in Brooklyn, New York, by Charles Pfizer and Charles Erhart.Pfizer produces and markets drugs and vaccines for various therapeutic areas, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, neuroscience, oncology, inflammation, and immunology. Some of Pfizer's most well-known products include Viagra, Lipitor, Lyrica, Celebrex, and Prevnar 13. The company **operates **in over 125 countries and employs over 80,000 people.Pfizer's R&D centers are located in Groton and New Haven (USA), Sandwich (UK), and Paris (France), with significant manufacturing facilities in Puerto Rico, Ireland, Belgium, and the United States.In addition to its pharmaceuticals business, Pfizer has a robust global health business, which includes animal health and consumer healthcare products.

To know more about **pharmaceutical **visit:

https://brainly.com/question/30075955

#SPJ11

Given the following:

Addition to Retained earnings= 10,000

Dividends=20,000

Equity ratio=0.6

Assets= 5,000

Interest Rate= 10% and Tax= 40%

1- Calculate EBIT

### Answers

The **EBIT **(Earnings Before Interest and Taxes) given the information provided, including the addition to retained earnings, dividends, equity ratio, assets,** interest rate**, and tax rate.

EBIT can be calculated using the formula EBIT = Net Income + Interest Expense + Tax Expense. EBIT, we need to determine the net income, **interest expense**, and tax expense.

Given the information provided, the net income can be subtracting the dividends from the addition to retained earnings. In this case, the net income would be $10,000 - $20,000 = -$10,000 (assuming a negative net income due to **higher dividends **than the addition to retained earnings).

Since the interest rate and assets are provided, we can interest expense by multiplying the interest rate by the assets. Assuming the **assets value is $5,000 **and the interest rate is 10%, the interest expense would be $5,000 * 0.10 = $500.

the tax expense, we multiply the net income by the tax rate. Assuming a **tax rate of 40%** and a net income of -$10,000, the tax expense would be -$10,000 * 0.40 = -$4,000.

Final EBIT by adding the** net income**, interest expense, and tax expense: EBIT = -$10,000 + $500 - $4,000 = -$13,500. Therefore, the EBIT is -$13,500.

Learn more about** EBIT**:

https://brainly.com/question/30400725

#SPJ11

Why do organizations provide diversity training? Why

kinds of goals are most suitable for such training?

### Answers

**Diversity training **promotes inclusivity, reduces discrimination, enhances cultural competence, and improves **collaboration **by raising awareness of biases and fostering respect, diversity, and teamwork.

**Diversity training** is implemented by organizations to address the challenges and **opportunities **associated with a diverse workforce. It aims to create an inclusive and equitable workplace where employees from different backgrounds, cultures, and identities feel valued and respected.

The goals of diversity training vary depending on the organization's specific needs, but some common objectives include increasing awareness of unconscious biases and stereotypes, promoting cultural competence and understanding, mitigating discriminatory behaviors, and encouraging inclusive communication and collaboration. The training may also focus on developing strategies for managing diverse teams, fostering a sense of belonging, and promoting diversity in hiring and career advancement.

By providing diversity training, **organizations **aim to create a positive work environment that embraces differences, enhances employee engagement and **productivity**, reduces conflicts and biases, and ultimately cultivates a more diverse and inclusive organizational culture

Learn more about **productivity **here:

https://brainly.com/question/30333196

#SPJ11

When the sign of the cash flows changes more than once during the investment's life, it means that: a. IRR can be used to evaluate the investment b. IRR is not unique c. IRR is unique

### Answers

The answer is option (c), IRR is unique. When the sign of the cash flows changes more than once during an **investment**'s life, it does not affect the uniqueness of the Internal Rate of Return, **IRR**.

The IRR is still a unique value that can be used to evaluate the investment.

The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate that makes the** net present value** (NPV) of an investment equal to zero. It represents the rate of return at which the present value of cash inflows equals the present value of cash outflows.

The IRR calculation considers the timing and magnitude of **cash flows** throughout the investment's life. It takes into account both positive and negative cash flows and their respective timings. The IRR is unique because it represents the single **discount rate** that equates the present value of all cash flows to zero.

The fact that the sign of cash flows changes more than once does not invalidate the concept of IRR or make it non-unique. The IRR calculation can handle multiple changes in cash flow direction, including multiple sign changes. It considers the relative timing and magnitude of these cash flows to determine a single IRR value.

Therefore, regardless of how many times the sign of cash flows changes during an investment's life, the IRR remains a unique value that can be used to evaluate the investment's profitability and compare it to other investment opportunities.

To learn more about **IRR**, visit:

**https://brainly.com/question/33074843**

#SPJ11

How long will it take you to triple your money if the interest

rate is 8% and you receive monthly compounding?

A. 17.83 years

B. 13.78 years

C. 17.38 years

D. 13.87 years

### Answers

The correct answer is D. It will take approximately 13.87 years to triple your money with an 8% interest rate and **monthly compounding.**

To determine how long it will take to triple your money, you can use the rule of 72. The rule of 72 states that you can approximate the number of years it takes to double your money by dividing 72 by the interest rate. In this case, since you want to **triple your money,** you can divide 72 by the interest rate of 8%, resulting in approximately 9 years. However, since the interest is compounded monthly, the compounding frequency should be taken into account.

Using the **compound interest formula**, A = P(1 + r/n)^(nt), where A is the future value, P is the principal (initial amount), r is the interest rate, n is the compounding frequency per year, and t is the time in years, we can rearrange the formula to solve for t:

t = (log(A/P) / log(1 + r/n)) / n

Plugging in the values, with A/P = 3 (since you want to triple your money), r = 8%, and n = 12 (monthly compounding), we **can calculate** the time required:

t = (log(3) / log(1 + 0.08/12)) / 12 ≈ 13.87 years

Therefore, the correct answer is D. It will take approximately 13.87 years to triple your money with an 8% interest rate and monthly compounding.

Learn more about **Compounding** here

https://brainly.com/question/28964504

#SPJ11

Give an example of a way in which Native Americans were fairly

consistent across the United States.

### Answers

One way in which **Native Americans** were fairly consistent across the United States is in their strong connection to and reverence for the natural environment. Native American tribes across different regions shared a deep respect for the land, water, plants, and animals that sustained their communities. They recognized the interdependence between humans and nature, viewing themselves as caretakers of the earth.

This connection to the natural world is evident in various aspects of Native American cultures. Many **tribes** had spiritual beliefs and practices centered around nature, with ceremonies and rituals honoring the elements and natural forces. Native American tribes also had **sustainable **hunting, fishing, and agricultural practices that ensured the preservation and conservation of resources for future generations.

Additionally, Native American art, folklore, and storytelling often portrayed a close relationship with nature, depicting animals, plants, and landscapes as important symbols and sources of inspiration. The deep respect for the environment and the understanding of humans' role as part of a larger ecological system were consistent themes that transcended tribal boundaries and were shared by Native American communities across the **United States.**

To learn more about,** Native Americans**, click here, https://brainly.com/question/13794240

#SPJ11

describe any connection between od and competitive

advantage

### Answers

**Organizational **Development (OD) can contribute to gaining a competitive advantage by enhancing the organization's capabilities, fostering innovation, and improving overall performance.

Organizational Development is a systematic approach aimed at improving organizational effectiveness and** facilitating** positive change within an organization. By focusing on enhancing various aspects such as culture, processes, structure, and human resources, OD initiatives can help organizations develop a competitive advantage.

Firstly, OD** interventions **can enhance an organization's capabilities by improving its internal processes, systems, and structures. This can lead to increased efficiency, productivity, and overall operational effectiveness, giving the organization a competitive edge. For example, implementing lean management practices or streamlining communication channels through OD initiatives can result in cost savings, faster decision-making, and improved customer responsiveness.

Secondly, OD interventions can foster innovation within an organization. By promoting a culture of learning, collaboration, and creativity, OD efforts can encourage employees to generate and implement new ideas and approaches. This can lead to the development of innovative products, services, or processes that differentiate the organization from its competitors.

Lastly, OD can contribute to gaining a competitive advantage by improving overall performance. By focusing on areas such as talent management, leadership development, and employee **engagement,** OD interventions can enhance the skills, motivation, and satisfaction of employees. This, in turn, can lead to higher levels of employee performance, customer satisfaction, and ultimately, a competitive advantage in the market.

Organizational **Development** can contribute to gaining a competitive advantage by improving organizational capabilities, fostering innovation, and enhancing overall performance through its focus on enhancing processes, structures, culture, and human resources within an organization.

To learn more about **Organizational.**

Click here:brainly.com/question/25922351

#SPJ11

According to the augmented Phillips curve, persistent inflation comes from:

•Firms and workers revising their expectations of inflation to be last year's.

•Higher wages leading to higher prices.

•Unemployment staying constant from one year to the next.

•People having no expectations about inflation changes from year to year.

### Answers

According to the augmented Phillips curve, persistent **inflation **comes from higher wages leading to higher prices. The relationship between wages and prices is a key factor in understanding inflation dynamics.

When wages increase, firms may pass on the higher **labor **costs to consumers by raising prices, leading to inflationary pressures. This suggests that changes in the cost of production, particularly wages, play a significant role in driving inflation over time.

The other options mentioned in the question are not directly related to persistent inflation according to the augmented Phillips curve. Expectations of inflation, **unemployment**, and people having no expectations about inflation changes do not directly explain the persistence of inflation. Instead, the focus is on the relationship between wages and prices as a driving force behind inflationary trends.

To know more about **inflation **visit:

https://brainly.com/question/33689002

#SPJ11

A piece of equipment is purchased for $100,000 and has an estimated salvage value of $20,000 at the end of the recovery period. Prepare a depreciation schedule for the equipment using the sum-of-the-year method with the recovery period of four years.

### Answers

Under the **sum-of-the-year method**, the depreciation schedule for the equipment is as follows:

Depreciation Schedule:

Year Cost Depreciation Accumulated Book Value

Expense Depreciation

1 $100,000 $32,000 $32,000 $68,000

2 $100,000 $24,000 $56,000 $44,000

3 $100,000 $16,000 $72,000 $28,000

4 $100,000 $8,000 $80,000 $20,000

How is the sum-of-the-years' digit method?

The **sum-of-the-years' digit method** is one of the depreciation methods.

This method involves using the sum of the years to determine the denominator for dividing the **depreciable amount**, which is then multiplied by the number of years remaining before the asset is fully depreciated.

Cost of equipment = $100,000

Salvage value = $20,000

Depreciation amount =$80,000 ($100,000 - $20,000)

Recovery period = 4 years

Sum of the years = 10 (4+3+2+1)

Year Depreciation Expense

1 $32,000 ($80,000 x 4/10)

2 $24,000 ($80,000 x 3/10)

3 $16,000 ($80,000 x 2/10)

4 $8,000 ($80,000 x 1/10)

Learn more about **the sum-of-the-years' digit method** at https://brainly.com/question/30531944.

#SPJ4

Consider a small open country that faces a constant discount rate r. Standard models of international finance postulate the following expressions:B t

=B t−1

+CA t

NFIA t

=rB t−1

lim s→[infinity]

(1+r) s

B s

=0 student submitted image, transcription available below

where Bt is net foreign wealth, NF I At is net factor income from abroad and C At is the current account in period t. In class, we showed that the expressions above together imply that the net foreign asset position in period 0, B0, equals the dis- counted value of the country’s future trade balances.

(a) What are the assumptions that allows us to write equation (1)? What are the assumptions that allow us to write equation (2)?

(b) Now suppose that equation (2) does not hold. In addition to the net stock of bonds, represented by Bt, countries have an old stock of foreign direct in- vestment (FDI) that does not change, but that generate revenues in foreign countries. Denote profits from domestic multinationals’ affiliates abroad in period t with πt and profits from foreign multinationals’ affiliates in the small country with π∗t .

(i) Write NFIAt in this new scenario.

(ii) Equations (1) through (3) together implied:−B 0

=∑ t=1

[infinity]

(1+r) t

TB t

student submitted image, transcription available below

where TBt denotes the trade balance in period t. Show how this expression changes with this new scenario. That is, write B0 as a function of future trade balances, πt and π*t

(c) Interpret the results in part (b). Is it conceptually possible for a country with a negative net foreign wealth, B0 <0, to perpetually run trade balance deficits? Briefly explain why this possibility is relevant for the USA.

### Answers

(a) Equation (1) assumes a constant discount rate (r), while equation (2) assumes that net foreign wealth approaches zero as time approaches infinity.

(b) (i) NFIAt = πt + π∗t in the new scenario.

(ii) In the new scenario, −B0 = ∑t=1[infinity] (1+r)t (TBt + πt + π∗t).

(c) Yes, it is conceptually possible for a country with negative net foreign wealth (B0 < 0) to perpetually run trade balance deficits, especially if future profits from **foreign direct investment** (FDI) outweigh future trade balances.

(a) In order to write equation (1), we make certain assumptions. First, we assume that the current account (CAt) and the net factor income from abroad (NFIA t) can be accurately measured and accounted for in the calculation of net foreign wealth (Bt). Additionally, we assume that the discount rate (r) remains constant over time and is applied consistently to discount future **trade balances**. These assumptions allow us to model the accumulation of net foreign wealth based on the country's trade and income flows, taking into account the discounting effect.

Equation (2) is derived from the concept of intertemporal budget constraint and the assumption that the discounted value of future trade balances should converge to zero in the long run. This implies that over time, the country's trade and income flows should balance out, resulting in a net foreign asset position of zero. The assumption of convergence to zero reflects the idea that countries cannot continuously accumulate positive or negative net foreign wealth indefinitely.

(b) In the new scenario where equation (2) does not hold, we introduce the concept of foreign direct investment (FDI) and its associated **profits**. In addition to the net stock of bonds (Bt), there is now an old stock of FDI that remains unchanged but generates revenues in foreign countries. The profits from domestic multinationals' affiliates abroad (πt) and profits from foreign multinationals' affiliates in the small country (π∗t) become relevant.

(i) In this new scenario, the net factor income from abroad (NFIAt) would include the profits from both domestic and foreign multinationals' affiliates abroad, represented as NFIA t = πt - π∗t.

(ii) With the inclusion of FDI profits and the revised NFIAt, equation (3) becomes:

-B0 = ∑[t=1 to infinity] [tex](1+r)^t[/tex] * (TBt + NFIA t).

(c) The results in part (b) highlight the impact of FDI and associated profits on the net foreign wealth and the intertemporal budget constraint. It shows that the **net foreign **asset position in period 0, B0, is now influenced not only by future trade balances (TBt) but also by the profits generated from FDI (πt and π∗t). The inclusion of FDI profits expands the scope of factors that contribute to the net foreign asset position.

Regarding the concept of a negative net foreign wealth (B0 < 0) and perpetually running trade balance deficits, it is possible in theory. If a country consistently runs trade deficits over time and relies on borrowing or FDI inflows to finance these deficits, it can accumulate a negative net foreign wealth. However, sustaining this situation indefinitely may pose challenges as it would require a continuous inflow of capital or borrowing to cover the deficits. The relevance of this possibility for the USA highlights the ongoing debate surrounding the country's trade imbalances and its reliance on external financing.

Learn more about **foreign direct investment**

brainly.com/question/32698908

#SPJ11

ABC Inc., a calendar year, accrual basis taxpayer, makes the following dividend-type distribution.

On April 3, 2021, ABC distributes land to its sole shareholder.

The land has a fair market value of $350,000 and a basis of $270,000.

The land has a $190,000 mortgage liability attached, which the shareholder assumes.

This is the only distribution during the year. ABC has total E&P of $10,000 before considering the effects of this distribution.

The shareholder has basis in her stock of $120,000.

Describe the tax consequences to the shareholder, ABC Inc., and ABC’s E&P as a result of this distribution.

### Answers

The distribution is treated as a property dividend by ABC Inc. since it distributed land instead of cash to its sole shareholder. The property dividend is treated as a distribution of property having a fair market value equal to the fair market value of the **property** distributed by ABC Inc. ($350,000).

According to the information provided, the shareholder has basis in her stock of $120,000.Therefore, the shareholder is considered to have received a distribution of $350,000, the fair **market value** of the property distributed, less her share of the mortgage liability of $190,000, or $160,000.

In this case, the **shareholder** does not have enough stock basis to absorb the $160,000 distribution, thus $120,000 of the distribution is considered a long-term capital gain and $40,000 of the distribution is a return of capital.As a result of the property dividend, ABC Inc. recognizes a gain of $80,000 ($350,000 – $270,000 basis).

To know more about **property** visit:-

https://brainly.com/question/13218130

#SPJ11